Nervous clients and their over reliance on consumer research can be a huge problem. Innovative advertising makes focus groups uncomfortable because, by definition, they have not seen anything like it before, so they are not sure about it. The mind-numbing straitjacket of ill-thought-out corporate guidelines handled over by branding consultancies… and yes, advertising agencies sometimes fail to come up with sufficiently interesting solutions or, we fail to sell them to our clients.

Graphic Design: A User’s Manual by Adrian Shaughnessy of United Editions citing Paul Belford